Related content design and performance test of a mems vibratory gyroscope with a novel agc force rebalance control. The development of micromachined gyroscope structure. Theory and design of micromechanical vibratory gyroscopes. Control of mems coriolis vibratory gyroscopes zurich instruments. To enhance the capability of proposed mpc method for tracking timevarying reference trajectories, first a. Vibration sensitivity analysis of mems vibratory ring. A lownoise hv interface circuit for mems vibratory gyroscope. Structural approaches to improve robustness mems reference shelf. Mems which combine mechanical, electrical, optical, or fluidic elements. A vibrating structure gyroscope, defined by the ieee as a coriolis vibratory gyroscope cvg, is a gyroscope that uses a vibrating structure to determine the rate of rotation. This is accomplished by an electronic feedback system which.
Analysis of dynamic performance of a kalman filter for. Smart mems gyroscope would include selfcalibration capabilities built onchip for detection and compensation of. Environmentally robust mems vibratory gyroscopes for. Mems vibratory gyroscopes and traditional gyroscopes such as the fiberoptics gyroscopes, mems gyroscopes have recently received more and more attention because of their low cost, small device size, low power consumptionand high reliability, combined with ease of fabrication in large numbers on a single wafer 1,2. Boser, chair inexpensive mems gyroscopes are enabling a wide range of automotive and consumer applications. When we rotated, the coriolis force creates an orthogonal vibration that can be sensed by a variation of devices. Theory and design of micromechanical vibratory gyroscopes 175 oscillatory continuous discrete multiple single hrg ring tuning fork single mass beam gimballed wheel rotary dtg figure 2. Fabrication defects and perturbations affect the behavior of a vibratory mems gyroscope sensor, which makes it difficult to measure the rotation angular rate. Shkel, environmentally robust mems vibratory gyroscopes for. Mems vibratory gyroscopes is a must have book for engineers in both industry and academia who specialize in the design and manufacture of gyroscopes. Design and analysis of a mems comb vibratory gyroscope.
Although all vibratory mems gyroscopes rely on the rotationinduced coriolis force, the operating modes of the two technologies are different. In the design of the proposed 4dof mems vibratory gyroscope, the elements of the drivemode are set inside the whole gyroscope architecture, and the elements of sensemode are set around the drivemode, which thus makes it possible to combine several gyroscope units into. In the proposed mpc method, using a set of orthonormal basis functions named laguerre functions, a new prediction and optimization technique is designed. Mems vibratory gyroscopes provides a solid foundation in the theory and fundamental operational principles of micromachined vibratory rate gyroscopes, and introduces structural designs that provide inherent robustness against structural and environmental variations. Vibratory gyroscopes utilizing coriolis effect were successfully used in vast amount of different applications since micro fabrication techniques made possible to reduce its cost in mass production along with significant reduction in size 1, 2.
All vibratory gyroscopes are based on the transfer of energy between two vibration modes of a structure caused by coriolis acceleration. Coriolis acceleration is generated by any object such as a proofmass that has some velocity relative to a rotating reference frame. Actuation techniques for frequency modulated mems gyroscopes by michael xie. Geen, john chang, joe bergeron, william clark, and michael w. The paper presents a lownoise high voltage hv cmos interface asic designed for mems vibratory gyroscopes. In practical implementations of vibratory rate gyroscopes stabilization of the drivemode velocity is desired to reduce the effect of manufacturing tolerances and operational conditions on the scale factor of the sensor. Judy inertial mems and sensors technologies, analog devices inc. This allows to digitally combine the signals from two or more modulator outputs.
This paper presents a novel adaptive approach that can identify, in an online fashion, angular rate and other system parameters. James objectives to qualitatively observe some of the motions of a gyroscope. Selvakumar rajalakshmi engineering college, chennai 602105 india. There are bar and rotor types of vibratory gyroscope. Vibratory rate gyroscope system is composed of a 1dof drivemode oscillatoranda1dofsensemodeoscillator. Pdf automotive applications are known to impose quite harsh environmental conditions such as vibration, shock, temperature, and thermal cycling on. Inexpensive vibrating structure gyroscopes manufactured with mems. Therefore the acceleration terms are assumed to be compensated by signal processing and will be neglected.
Request pdf on sep 1, 2009, cenk acar and others published mems vibratory gyroscopes find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Ring gyroscopes are believed to be relatively vibrationinsensitive because the vibration modes utilized during gyro operation are decoupled from the modes excited by environmental vibration. The memsbased vibratory gyroscope system has three parts, namely the mems structure. Theory a gyroscope is defined as a rigid rotating object, symmetric about one axis. Structural approaches to improve robustness mems reference shelf acar, cenk, shkel, andrei on. Out of three mems vibratory gyroscopes tested without insitu device calibration, it was observed that samples had minimum and maximum insitu zero rate output zro drift of 1. Among different kinds of mems gyroscopes, electrostatic driving, capacitance sensing microgyroscope is a very attractive category 45. A simplified model of vibratory gyros is shown in figure 1. Continuous selfcalibration canceling driveinduced errors in mems vibratory gyroscopes igor p.
Model predictive control of mems vibratory gyroscope. Readout techniques for highq micromachined vibratory rate. Gyroscope, mems gyroscope, tuning fork gyroscope, silicon. Together, the chapters analyze different types of sensitive element designs and their kinematics, derivation of motion equations, analysis of sensitive elements dynamics in modulated and demodulated signals, calculation and optimization of main performance. The hf2li offers a variety of features, which makes it a powerful instrument for driving and characterizing vibratory gyroscopes, accelerometers and other mems oscillating structures. The tuning fork gyroscopes have a pair of masses that are motivated to fluctuate with equal amplitude but in reverse directions. Momeni tarbiat modares university, faculty of engineering, control systems department, tehran, iran abstractthis paper presents a systematic approach to obtain governing equations of micro electro mechanical gyroscopes. Evaluating error sources during mems gyroscope selection. Microelectromechanical systems mems combine micromachining with siliconbased microelectronics, which are fabricated using integrated circuit ic techniques. The gyroscope a large acquaintance with particulars often makes us wiser than the possession of abstract formulas, however deep. A vibrating structure gyroscope, defined by the ieee as a coriolis vibratory gyroscope cvg.
Mems vibratory gyroscopes structural approaches to improve robustness cenk acar and andrei shkel isbn. Continuous selfcalibration canceling driveinduced errors. Pdf environmentally robust mems vibratory gyroscopes for. System modeling of mems gyroscopes ramyar rashed and h. Development of a lateral velocitycontrolled mems vibratory gyroscope and its performance test to cite this article. Gyroscopes are used in various applications to sense either the angle turned through by a vehicle or structure displacement gyroscopes or, more commonly, its angular rate of turn about some defined axis rate gyroscopes. Systems mems are miniaturized devices that combine integrated electrical. The sensors are used in a variety of roles such as.
A single mass vibratory rate integrating gyroscope can be modeled. In a tuning fork device, there is a transfer of energy between two flexural modes of a proofmass held in place via suspension springs. Sem pictures of different mems vibratory gyroscopes. I 11111 111111ll111 ill11 ill11 iiiii iiiii 111ll ill11. This paper presents a detailed model for possible vibration effects on mems degenerate gyroscopes represented by vibratory ring gyroscopes. Modelbased control concepts for vibratory mems gyroscopes. Mems vibratory gyroscopes structural approaches to. In order to understand how the hf2li digital lockin amplifier is used for gyroscope applications, it is helpful to explain the internal structure of the instrument. Simplified lumpedmass model of a vibrating mems gyroscope.
Pdf simulation of the mems vibratory gyroscope through. Mems inertial sensors comprise gyroscopes and accelerometers. Mems vibratory gyroscopes provides a solid foundation in the theory and fundamental. The normal gyroscope shown in fig1 is using the comb type structures to drive the tuningfork into resonance. Mems, vibratory gyroscope, forcebalancing control, mpc, laguerre functions. Mems gyroscopes include a mechanical resonator supporting two resonating modes, the primary mode and the secondary mode. For miniaturizing the gyroscope dimension, gyroscope implemented with mems technology that is in the form of vibratory gyroscope.
Design, fabrication and characterization of mems gyroscopes. The sensing element in the bar type is formed by several vibrating objects similar to the bars of a tuning fork. A vibratory rate gyroscope is a sensor that responds to a rotation rate by generating and measuring coriolis accelera tion. Control of mems coriolis vibratory gyroscopes eeweb. A mems gyroscope array is then presented using the novel gyroscope unit. A vibrating structure gyroscope functions much like the halteres of flies insects in the order diptera the underlying physical principle is that a vibrating object tends to continue vibrating in the same plane even. Modal analysis of a singlestructure multiaxis mems gyroscope. The proposed approach develops an online identifier scheme, by rewriting the dynamic model of mems gyroscope. Vibratory gyroscope an instrument for determining the angular velocity of an object. Kugi, modelbased control concepts for vibratory mems gyroscopes, mechatronics,22,3,241250,2012. This book provides the latest theoretical analysis and design methodologies of different types of coriolis vibratory gyroscopes cvg. Sd modulators are widely used, since they combine the bene.
This paper presents a mpc model predictive control algorithm for mems vibratory gyroscopes based on forcebalancing control strategy. A unique balance between theory and practical design issues. Structural approaches to improve robustness mems reference shelf cenk acar, andrei shkel mems vibratory gyroscopes provides a solid foundation in the theory and fundamental operational principles of micromachined vibratory rate gyroscopes, and introduces structural designs that provide inherent robustness against. Fab rication methods of mems technology have made possible to construct gyroscopes in very compact sizes. For this, two of the tuning forks are merged orthogonally with a single ring shaped. Readout techniques for highq micromachined vibratory rate gyroscopes by chinwuba david ezekwe doctor of philosophy in engineering electrical engineering and computer sciences university of california, berkeley professor bernhard e. Designs that were used to produce micromechanical gyroscopes are shown in. To win space, most mems imus designs combine two inplane accelerometers and gyroscopes and axes.
Mems are small and integrated devices, which combine electronics, electrical as well as mechanical elements to meet the control related functional requirements. Active structural error suppression in mems vibratory rate. Rsg which is formed as a merged superposition of two square shells. These gyroscopes use electrostatic comb drive to activate the device in x. A mems gyroscope is a micromachined inertial device that can measure the angle of orientation or the angular rate of rotation. The fabrication of a memsbased translational vibratory z. System identification of mems vibratory gyroscope sensor.578 937 1215 142 1547 422 1112 1467 374 472 1308 177 394 1566 647 446 1486 1149 100 713 572 1322 223 1443 636 772 829 113 209 1146 312 706 804 1190 1037